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Normal Processes Edit

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes, including neural tube derivatives, cerebral ventricles, and neural crest derivatives Edit

Organ structure and functionEdit

spinal cord: gross anatomy and blood supply, spinal reflexes

brain stem (eg, cranial nerves and nuclei, reticular formation, anatomy and blood supply, control of eye movements)

brain: gross anatomy and blood supply, higher function: cognition, language, memory, executive function hypothalamic function limbic system and emotional behavior circadian rhythms and sleep

sensory systems general sensory modalities, including sharp, dull, temperature, vibratory, and proprioception special sensory modalities, including vision, hearing, taste, olfaction, and balance

motor systems brain and spinal cord (upper motoneuron) basal ganglia and cerebellum

autonomic nervous system

peripheral nerves

Cell/tissue structure and function, including neuronal cellular and molecular biologyEdit

axonal transport

excitable properties of neurons, axons, and dendrites, including channels synthesis, storage, release, reuptake, and degradation of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

presynaptic and postsynaptic receptor interactions, trophic and growth factors

brain metabolism

glia, myelin

brain homeostasis: blood-brain barrier, cerebrospinal fluid formation and flow, choroid plexus

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of lifeEdit

Abnormal Processes: Edit

Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis

Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disordersEdit

infectious disorders:

meningitis: bacterial (Actinomyces israelii; Haemophilus influenzae; Listeria monocytogenes; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Neisseria meningitidis; Staphylococcus aureus, epidermidis; Streptococcus agalactiae; Streptococcus pneumoniae); viral (adenovirus, arboviruses, echovirus and coxsackie A & B viruses, polioviruses, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, human immunodeficiency virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, measles virus, mumps virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, California encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus); fungal (Blastomycosis dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii); spirochetal (Borrelia burgdorferi; Leptospira; Treponema pallidum, including neurosyphilis); protozoal/helminths (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri, Strongyloides stercoralis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Baylisascaris procyonis); encephalitis (herpesvirus [HSVI], varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, mumps virus, enterovirus, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, rabies virus, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis virus, poliovirus, Taenia, Toxoplasma gondii); prion disease (eg, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); botulism (Clostridium botulinum), tetanus (Clostridium tetani); CNS disorders associated with AIDS (eg, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)

immunologic and inflammatory disorders:

myasthenia gravis, including thymoma; multiple sclerosis; transverse myelitis

Neoplasms (cerebral, spinal, and peripheral):Edit

benign (meningioma, neurofibromatosis); malignant (glioblastoma multiforme, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, primary CNS lymphoma); metastatic (eg, breast, lung, pancreatic, testicular, melanoma)

Cerebrovascular disease:Edit

arteriovenous malformations, ectatic cerebral vessels; transient ischemic attack; stroke, thrombotic: cerebral artery occlusion/cerebral infarction; stroke, embolic: cerebral embolism; stroke: intracerebral hemorrhage, including subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic intracranial hemorrhage; cerebral artery aneurysm; carotid artery stenosis/atherosclerosis/occlusion/dissection; vertebral artery deficiency/dissection; subclavian steal syndrome; vascular dementia; hypertensive encephalopathy; posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; venous sinus thrombosis

Disorders relating to the spine, spinal cord, and spinal nerve roots:Edit

cauda equina syndrome; spinal artery thrombosis/embolus/infarct; spinal cord compression; spinal cord transection, paraplegia and quadriplegia, acute and chronic effects (eg, autonomic dysreflexia); spinal stenosis (cervical, lumbar)

Cranial and peripheral nerve disordersEdit

cranial nerve injury/disorders:

cranial nerve injury; Bell palsy; anisocoria, miosis, mydriasis; internuclear ophthalmoplegia; nystagmus and other irregular eye movements; vestibular neuritis, labyrinthitis; ptosis of the eyelid; Horner syndrome

peripheral nerve/plexus injury/disorders:

peripheral nerve injury, including brachial plexus; carpal/cubital/tarsal/peroneal tunnel syndrome; mononeuritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome; Miller Fisher syndrome; neuropathy (eg, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease); herpes zoster 10

Neurologic pain syndromes:Edit

complex regional pain syndrome (reflex sympathetic dystrophy, causalgia); fibromyalgia; postherpetic neuralgia; phantom limb pain; thalamic pain syndrome; trigeminal neuralgia

Degenerative disorders/amnestic syndromes:Edit

Alzheimer disease; frontotemporal dementia, including Pick disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Lewy body disease

Global cerebral dysfunction:Edit

altered states of consciousness; delirium; coma/brain death

Neuromuscular disorders:Edit

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/spinal muscular atrophy; muscular dystrophy; muscle channelopathies

Movement disorders:Edit

acute dystonia; adult tic disease; essential tremor; Huntington disease; Parkinson disease, including Parkinson dementia

Metabolic disorders:Edit

adrenoleukodystrophy; metabolic encephalopathy

Paroxysmal disorders:Edit

headache, including migraine, mixed, tension, ice-pick, cluster, medication withdrawal, caffeine withdrawal; seizure disorders, including generalized tonic-clonic, partial, absence, febrile

Sleep disorders:Edit

cataplexy and narcolepsy; circadian rhythm disorders; insomnia, primary; sleep terror disorder and sleepwalking; REM sleep behavior disorder; restless legs syndrome

Traumatic and mechanical disorders and disorders of increased intracranial pressure: Edit

anoxic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia; epidural, subdural hematoma (cerebral and spinal); intraparenchymal hemorrhage, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage; cerebral edema; pseudotumor cerebri (idiopathic intracranial hypertension); torticollis/cervical dystonia; hydrocephalus, including normal-pressure; traumatic brain injury (concussion)/postconcussion syndrome (dementia pugilistica); traumatic brain syndrome

Congenital disorders:Edit

Friedreich ataxia; neural tube defects (eg, spina bifida, holoprosencephaly, anencephaly); microcephaly; Sturge-Weber syndrome; tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau disease; hydrocephalus, obstructive (Arnold-Chiari)

Adverse effects of drugs on the nervous system:Edit

acute dystonic reaction; drug-induced meningitis (eg, NSAIDs, sulfa drugs); drug-induced neuropathy (eg, vincristine, isoniazid, metronidazole); extrapyramidal adverse effects (eg, akathisia, dystonia, drug-induced parkinsonism); neuroleptic malignant syndrome; poisoning by psychotropic agents, including antidepressants; serotonin syndrome; tardive dyskinesia

Disorders of the eye and eyelidEdit

infectious and inflammatory disorders of the eye:

blepharitis/eyelid inflammation; chalazion; chorioretinitis; conjunctivitis (adenovirus)/keratoconjunctivitis; dacryocystitis; endophthalmitis; hordeolum; iridocyclitis; optic neuritis; periorbital cellulitis; uveitis

neoplasms of the eye:

melanoma; retinoblastoma

disorders of the eye and eyelid, structural:

cataract; glaucoma; lacrimal system disorders; pterygium; refractive disorders (presbyopia, myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism)

disorders of the pupil, iris, muscles (extraocular):

amblyopia; strabismus

disorders of the retina:

hypertensive retinopathy; macular degeneration; papilledema; retinal detachment; retinitis pigmentosa; vascular disorders affecting the retina, including central retinal artery embolus, retinal hemorrhage, amaurosis fugax, embolus, carotid artery stenosis, central retinal vein occlusion; visual impairment/blindness, night blindness

traumatic and mechanical disorders:

black eye; burn of the eye and adnexa; corneal 11 abrasion, ulcer; dislocated lens; foreign body in eye; hyphema; injury to optic nerve and pathways; laceration of the eye and eyelid; ocular open wounds; orbital fracture; subconjunctival hemorrhage

adverse effects of drugs on the eyes:

ethambutol; hydroxychloroquine; prednisone

Disorders of the earEdit

infectious and inflammatory disorders of the ear:

chondritis; mastoiditis; otitis, externa, media, interna, serous, suppurative, malignant otitis externa

neoplasms:

acoustic neuroma, neurofibromatosis type 2; cholesteatoma

hearing loss/deafness:

hearing loss, including noise induced; otosclerosis; tinnitus

disorders of balance and spatial orientation:

Ménière disease; motion sickness; vertigo, including benign positional vertigo

traumatic and mechanical disorders:

barotrauma; foreign body in ear; impacted cerumen; laceration, avulsion; perforation of tympanic membrane; eustachian tube disorders

adverse effects of drugs on the ear:

antineoplastic agents, including cisplatin; aminoglycosides; furosemide; salicylates

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